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The phenomenon was first described by the famous Leonardo da Vinci about 500 years ago.
Scientists at Cambridge University explained the phenomenon of the hydraulic jump, which is expressed in sharp increase in water level while reducing its speed.
This phenomenon was first described by the famous Leonardo da Vinci about 500 years ago, writes the Internet-the edition with reference to .
The hydraulic jump is typical for rivers or reservoirs, the transition of flow from turbulent state to a tranquil, but it can also be observed in the moment when a jet of water from the tap gets to the flat surface of the shell.
In the notes Leonardo on the nature of water we find the first detailed considerations of how liquids behave at different velocities. For da Vinci it was just the nature of water, he did not give this phenomenon an explanation. In the next century Italian physicist of the 18th century, Giovanni Battista Guglielmini added the mathematical model of this phenomenon. But its cause remained a mystery.
Finally, in 1914, the physicist John William Strutt, third Baron Rayleigh, ventured to suggest the hypothesis of a liquid shock waves. His theoretical explanation to take into account such things as viscosity, kinetic energy and potential energy. In his opinion, the surface tension of water “can be minimized by increasing the flow”. Other researchers have also rejected the surface tension as a possible explanation of the phenomenon of the hydraulic jump. But maybe they were wrong.
A chemist from Cambridge, Rajesh Bhagat believes that previous scholars have too quickly ruled out the influence of surface tension on the formation of a hydraulic jump. The simulation allowed us to accurately predict the size of the hydraulic jump regardless of, whether the water flows down or is thrown up.
“Our research has shown that the jump surface tension and viscosity balance of momentum in a fluid and gravity does not play a significant role”, – stated in the report of Shaheed Bhagat.
The ability to ignore the effect of gravity and focus on surface tension allows you to manipulate the hydraulic jump, for example, by adding surface-active substances.”Understanding this process has major consequences and can dramatically reduce the use of industrial water,” says Bhagat.